CHALLENGE - Due to its attractive mechanical properties, aluminum 2024 is widely used in aircraft manufacturing industries, especially as fiber metal laminates, such as GLARE. In the present work, a series of experiments for different stress triaxialities are used to study the ductile damage of Al 2024 considering continuum damage mechanics (CDM).
SOLUTION - In the present section, an experimental/numerical/optimization procedure is used to obtain the true stress–strain curve of Al 2024. In this procedure, the root mean square (RMS) value of the difference between the experimental and numerical loaddisplacement curves is minimized by genetic algorithm (GA). The numerical load-displacement curve is obtained from the simulation of the tensile tests using FE method. The FE model is constructed in MSC MARC nonlinear FE software to perform the iterative simulation. modeFRONTIER is used to design the optimization algorithm in the present work.
BENEFITS - The numerical model can accurately predict the elastic and plastic behavior of the material before the necking onset with considering damage effect in the simulations