Occupant injury assessment in an emergency landing condition for a vertical take-off and landing aircraft
A representative multibody model of the pure vertical crash landing scenario has been developed, validated, and utilized, employing Kelvin restraints to model the structural systems and an FAA Hybrid III ATD model in MADYMO to capture the occupant level of injury. Two case studies are conducted using modeFRONTIER, where the first uses a linear structural model to describe the stiffness of the structures, while the second case considers a nonlinear definition to account for component failure. The first study yields trends for identifying the driving factors, where the damping of the landing skid is shown to be dominant over other factors to improve occupant safety. The addition of failure variables to the second study is shown to have an improvement in reducing the injury levels. Yet, the added complexity to the model could underline the value of integrated occupant safety design, as effective energy absorption is required to keep low injury levels.