Uncertainties estimates of hull girder still water loads of bulk and dry cargo ships through Monte Carlo simulations

This paper deals with the estimate of uncertainties affecting still water hull girder loads of bulk and dry cargo ships. In strength assessment of ships, two main categories of acting loads are considered: still water loads and wave induced ones. Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the uncertainties affecting the hull girder still water loads of ships in service, showing that their allowable values can be exceeded due to inaccuracies in ship and cargo management.