Due to its attractive mechanical properties, aluminum 2024 is widely used in aircraft manufacturing industries, especially as fiber metal laminates, such as GLARE. In the present work, a series of experiments for different stress triaxialities are used to study the ductile damage of Al 2024 considering continuum damage mechanics (CDM).
The structure considered in this study is a bridge consisting of four identical and equally–spaced steel girders with ﬂanges welded to the web. The beams are supposed to bear a concrete slab, an asphalt layer and two sidewalks. A reference optimization is performed by using the modeFRONTIER MOGA-II algorithm in order to find a series of compromise solutions between small seismic horizontal displacements and small weight values.